Poland syndrome or a defect of the underdeveloped chest muscle is a birth defect characterized by abnormal chest development due to underdevelopment/absence of the pectoral muscles or rib bone/cartilago costalis.
Poland syndrome signs:
- There is no excess skin in the chest area.
- The subcutaneous (fatty) tissue in the chest area is not developed enough.
- Missing/underdeveloped greater pectoral muscle (smaller pectoral muscle).
- Underdeveloped/missing mammary gland, the nipple-areola complex (breast hypoplasia/aplasia).
- Shortened, webbed fingers (syndactyly of the hand).
- Absent/deformed rib cartilage and/or bones.
- Missing armpit hair (alopecia).
Poland syndrome is a very rare congenital malformation. In most cases, the right side is involved and boys are vulnerable to this defect mainly. The first signs are visually noticeable during the period of infancy.
There are different theories regarding the causes of the origin of this pathology, but all of them are hypothetical, none of them has been reliably confirmed. One of the theories explains this defect by the violation of the migration of embryonal tissues. The other one explains it by the violation of the embryonic blood supply.
Peculiarities and types of surgery
A wide range of abnormal evidence of Poland syndrome determines a possible number of surgical measures in order to treat this pathology. The indications for a particular type of surgery depend on the deformity degree, gender, and age of the patient. Usually, treatment for this syndrome begins at an early age.
There are several types of surgeries, taking into account the signs of Poland syndrome:
- Surgery aimed to restore the breast muscle tissue, implant the breast, form the nipple.
- Surgery aimed to correct chest deformities.
- Surgery aimed to restore the rib bone and cartilago costalis.
- Surgery aimed to correct the hand and finger deformities.
In such cases where there are only soft tissues anomalies, and the chest, cartilaginous tissue and rib bones are in order, the following types of surgery are performed:
- Male patients. The patient’s muscle tissue (a part of the serratus аnterior or the rectus abdominis muscle) or a silicone prosthesis is used in order to restore normal chest muscles.
- Female patients. Several stages should be performed in order to correct aplasia/hypoplasia of the mammary gland. First of all, the broadest muscle of back is displaced forward (in order to create a muscular skeleton and interlayer). After healing, reconstructive mammoplasty is performed (with the application of an implant).
General contraindications: cancer, cardiovascular and acute infectious diseases, chronic hypertensive disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, blood-clotting disorder.
Poland syndrome surgery
Do I need to undergo examinations or tests before the procedure / operation?
Laboratory examination before the procedure / operation you can pass in our clinic or at the place of residence, depending on the type of anesthesia.
If the operation takes place under general anesthesia, then the following tests should be taken:
1. Full blood count and urine tests.
2. Blood glucose test.
3. Blood type and Rh factor.
4. Clotting assay.
5. Biochemical blood test.
6. Blood test for HBsAg, Anti-HCV Ig(G+M), Anti-HIV ½.
7. Wasserman reaction.
9. Physician’s examination
10. Chest X-ray.
11. Gynecologist’s examination.
12. For breasts surgery – breast ultrasound examination, examination by a breast specialist.
If the operation will take place under local anesthesia, then the following tests should be taken:
1. Complete blood count (with formula) + platelets.
2. Blood glucose test.
3. Clotting assay.
4. Blood test for HBsAg, Anti-HCV Ig(G+M), Anti-HIV ½.
5. Urine test.
6. Blood type.
7. Chest X-ray.
The cost of the examination in our clinic is 50-100 $.
Anesthesia is included in the price of the service?
The cost of anesthesia is not included in the cost of the procedure and is paid separately depending on its type and duration.
1. General short-term anesthesia (up to 2 hours) - 300 $
2. Each subsequent hour of general anesthesia additionally - 100 $
3. Intravenous anesthesia - 200 $
4. Local anesthesia - 100 $
After surgery, will I be able to stay in your clinic?
The postoperative period you can spend in our clinic. This service is paid separately - from 100 $ up to 200 $ per day.